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Scientific Publications

Scientific Publications

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Exploration of LIBS as a novel and rapid elemental mapping technique of nuclear fuels in the form of surrogate TRISO particles

ID: 3507
Year: 2023
Products: ESLumen, image-GEOLIBS
Authors: Benjamin T. Manard, Hunter B. Andrews, C. Derrick Quarles, Jr, Veronica C. Bradley, Peter Doyle, N. Alex Zirakparvar, Daniel R. Dunlap, Cole R. Hexel
Application:
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed to characterize coatings on surrogate fuel particles. Tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) particles are a proposed nuclear fuel alternative for high temperature reactors. These particles are constructed of a ZrO2 kernel (as a surrogate to uranium), surrounded by an inner pyrolytic carbon layer and are surrounded by an outer carbide layer (ZrC, presented here) to act as a barrier to fission products generated during nuclear reactions. These particles are embedded within a graphite compact and housed within the reactor core. Simply put, due to their robust nature, performing elemental analysis of these particles poses a challenge. Presented here, LIBS is explored as a method for characterizing elemental constituents of these particles, with the focus being on rapid elemental mapping and depth profiling. Different from traditional elemental analysis techniques (e.g., inductively coupled plasma – based methods), LIBS is advantageous b...

Determination of fluorine distribution in shark teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

ID: 3506
Year: 2007
Products: ESLumen, imageGEO LIBS, TwoVol3 ablation chamber
Authors: Benjamin T. Manard, Christopher J. Hintz, C. Derrick Quarles, Jr, William Burns, N. Alex Zirakparvar, Daniel R. Dunlap, Toya Beiswenger, Alicia M. Cruz-Uribe, Joseph A. Petrus, Cole R. Hexel
Application:
Quantifying the chemical composition of fast-growing hard tissues in the environment can shed valuable information in terms of understanding ecosystems both prehistoric and current. Changes in chemical composition can be correlated with environmental conditions and can provide information about the organism’s life. Sharks can lose 0.1 to 1.1 teeth/day, depending on species, which offers a unique opportunity to record environmental changes over a short duration of time. Shark teeth contain a biomineral phase that is made up of fluorapatite [Ca 5 ( PO 4 ) 3 F], and the F distribution within the tooth can be correlated to tooth hardness. Typically, this is determined by bulk acid digestion, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ( EDS ) , or wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy. Here we present laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy ( LIBS ) as an alternative and faster approach for determining F distribution within shark teeth. Using a two-volume laser ablation chamber ( TwoVol3 ) with innov...

Assessing the biogeochemical role and controls of nitrogen fixation in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

ID: 3505
Year: 2023
Products: SeaFAST
Authors: Kittu, L;
Application: ~
The Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP), hosts an extensive Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the water column which has a major imprint on local and global marine biogeochemistry. Due to the low oxygen conditions within the OMZ, microbial processes of nitrogen (N) loss, such as anammox and denitrification are sustained in the water column. These processes result in a pronounced N deficit which reduces bioavailable N for primary productivity and thus influences fisheries production in the region. To maintain a balanced marine N inventory regionally in ETSP, the N deficit would have to be compensated by N inputs via upwelling or N2 fixation. A classical assumption is that N2 fixation is favoured by iron (Fe) availability and a surplus of inorganic phosphate relative to inorganic nitrogen (this relativity is defined as P*), both conditions are present in the ETSP. Over the past decades, this assumption has been integrated into most coupled circulation and N-cycle biogeochemical models. Thes...

Analysis of microplastics as emerging contaminants using single particle ICP-MS

ID: 3504
Year: 2023
Products: CytoNeb and CytoSpray
Authors: Vincent, T;Asogan, D;Kutscher, D;
Application: ~
Abstract Unavailable...

Preconcentration, speciation, and determination of mercury in natural waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

ID: 3503
Year: 2023
Products: ESI Elemental Scientific EU European Union GC gas chromatography HPLC high performance liquid chromatography
Authors: Kulomaki, S;
Application: Total;Speciation;Species;Food;
Elohopea (Hg) on yksi toksisimmista alkuaineista, jota vapautuu ympäristöön sekä ihmisten toiminnan seurauksena että luonnollisista lähteistä. Biogeokemialliset prosessit voivat muuntaa epäorgaanisen elohopean (iHg) metyylielohopeaksi (MeHg). Myrkyllinen MeHg kerääntyy herkästi ravintoketjuun aiheuttaen riskejä niin ympäristölle kuin ihmisten terveydelle. Suurin osa saasteista, ja myös äärimmäisen myrkyllinen Hg, päätyy usein lopulta vesistöihin, joten luonnonvesien alhaisten Hg-pitoisuuksien seuranta on hyvin tärkeää. Tässä väitöskirjassa esitellään erittäin herkät analyysimenetelmät iHg:n ja MeHg:n esikonsentrointiin ja spesiaatioon sekä kokonaiselohopean määritykseen luonnonvesistä nanogrammapitoisuustasolla. Väitöskirjatyön ensimmäinen tavoite oli kehittää analyysimenetelmä Hg:n erittäin pienten pitoisuuksien analysoimiseksi luonnonvesistä induktiivisesti kytketyllä plasma-massaspektrometrillä (ICP-MS). Tämä saavutettiin hyödyntäm...

Distinguishing the Metallomes of Cardiac Cells and Various Tissues From Different States of Iron Abundance

ID: 3502
Year: 2023
Products: Elemental Scientific ESI-SC-2DX autosampler
Authors: Waxali, ZS;
Application: Cells;Biological;Species;
Iron (Fe) is an essential trace nutrient in biological systems, as its redox properties allow Fe to transfer electrons and small molecules for biological processes such as ATP production, metabolite synthesis, and oxygen transfer. Cells accumulate Fe in excess of their environment, store iron during iron overload, and activate systems to conserve Fe during periods of iron deficiency. Fe ions often catalyze reactions in enzymes—such as the several Fe-enzymes involved in ATP production through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation—and they also form heme groups in hemoglobin and myoglobin for oxygen transport. Though Fe is an essential nutrient, labile Fe species can form reactive oxygen species in cells that impart radical damage to macromolecules and may cause cell death. In contrast, iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency and affects multiple organ systems. Even though Fe is an essential nutrient whose concentration must be tightly controlled b...

Katsaus Oulun ja Helsingin erityispedagogiikan koulutusohjelmissa tehtyjen pro gradu-tutkielmien sisältöihin

ID: 3501
Year: 2023
Products: Product Unavailable
Authors: Saikkala, A;
Application: ~
Suomalainen opettajankoulutus on tutkimusperustaista ja siihen sisältyy tärkeänä osana opintojen loppuvaiheessa tehtävä pro gradu -tutkielma. Erityispedagogiikan koulutusohjelmassa se on kasvatustieteellinen tutkielma, missä opiskelija osoittaa omaa valmiuttaan tieteelliseen ajatteluun. Tutkielmassa opiskelija harjoittelee tutkimuksen tekoa ja syventyy valitsemaansa aihepiiriin. Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa selvitetään Oulun ja Helsingin erityispedagogiikan koulutusohjelmissa tehtyjen gradujen (n=103) sisältöjä. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu vuosien 2020 ja 2022 välisenä aikana tehdyistä graduista, jotka ovat avoimesti saatavilla Oulun ja Helsingin yliopistojen julkaisuarkistoista. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on tarkastella, millaisia aiheita graduissa käsitellään ja millaisia näkökulmia aiheiden tarkastelussa käytetään. Lisäksi selvitetään millaisia teoreettisia lähtökohtia, tutkimusmenetelmiä ja aineistonkeruutapoja niissä on käytetty sekä millaisia tutki...

Elokuvaohjaaja Suomessa. Nyt.: suomalaisen elokuvaohjaajan työn prosessit; etiikka, moraali, tekniikka ja sosiaalisuhteet

ID: 3500
Year: 2023
Products: Product Unavailable
Authors: Torhonen, L;
Application: ~
Elokuva on oma taide. Elokuva ei ole filmattua teatteria, vaikka ne, joiden etu väite on, niin väittävät. Elokuvan tärkein näyttelijä on kamera. Homo Sapiens, ajatteleva ihminen, kehittyi lajina niin, että osasi rakentaa auton ja lentokoneen, ja tehdä elokuvan. Autolla voi ajaa maan pinnalla minne vain; lentäen ihminen kumosi painovoiman. Hänellä on jo asunto avaruudessa ja hän kurkottaa etäämmälle. Elokuva antoi kyvyn nähdä, pääsyn tavoittamattomiin paikkoihin ja kokea tuntemattomia elämyksiä. Se siis sukeltaa ihmisen sieluun! Elokuvan kohtalo on sen dualismi: tekijälle elokuva on taidetta, mutta omistajalle kauppatavara. Siksi elokuvaan on lyöty poliittisia ja kaupallisia poltinmerkkejä. Taidemuotona elokuvan juuret ovat kuudessa klassisessa taiteessa (antiikin taiteet olivat kirjallisuus, arkkitehtuuri, maalaustaide, kuvanveisto, musiikki ja teatteri). Ne odottivat elokuvaa ja antoivat sille roolin heti, kun elokuva oli teknisesti mahdollinen. Elokuvaa ei vo...

Mercury dynamics in soil systems: A comprehensive study on natural and anthropogenic sources using elemental and isotopic analysis

ID: 3499
Year: 2023
Products: Hydride ICP System
Authors: Domingues Vieira, AM;
Application: Total;Speciation;soil;isotope;
Human activities (in)directly affect the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) in the environment. However, many aspects of Hg behaviour remain poorly understood. In this thesis, three different case studies addressed two main themes: i) the influence of climate change on Hg re-emissions from fireaffected soils and ii) the fate and behaviour of Hg in soils contaminated by non-ferrous ore mining and smelting. The first study investigated total Hg concentrations in uncontaminated soil profiles and Hg pools in organic horizons to estimate the fire-induced Hg emissions from the soil during a wildfire in Portugal. Fire-undisturbed soil profiles displayed higher Hg concentrations (156 μg kg-1 ) in the organic horizons, decreasing with depth in the mineral horizons. The Hg pool in these organic horizons was estimated at 10.6 g ha-1 . We calculated the wildfire released up to 133 g of Hg from the forest floor within the 12.5 ha burned area, emphasising its dual role in Hg (im)mobilisation in a...

Permian tectonic evolution of proto-Japan: Insights from detrital zircon geochronology and crystal morphology

ID: 3498
Year: 2023
Products: Elemental Scientific Laser NWR213 Nd:YAG (λ = 213 nm) laser ablation system
Authors: Ohkawa, M;
Application: Environmental;Laser;
Japan has evolved along the Paleo-Pacific Ocean as an arc-trench system in the Phanerozoic. However, the relationship between Japan and the older continental crust such as Sino-Korean and South China Blocks is unclear. This study compared published and new measured data of detrital zircon ages and morphology from Permian fore-arc accretionary complexes (Akiyoshi Belt) and back-arc basin deposits (Maizuru Belt) in Japan. The fore- and a part of back-arc deposits consist mainly of the late Paleozoic zircon grains that are close to the depositional ages and generally angular to subangular. These grains were supplied mainly from a volcanic arc isolated from the older continental crust, and the source rocks were exposed immediately prior to their erosion and transport and transported directly to the depositional site in a relatively short time. On the other hand, a part of back-arc deposits generally contains Precambrian to Paleozoic zircon grains that are commonly older than their depositi...

Accumulation of Trace Elements in Northern Sea Otter Vibrissae (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

ID: 3497
Year: 2023
Products: Product Unavailable
Authors: Burke, KL;
Application: Species;
The northern sea otter population which resides along the Alaska coast has undergone significant declines since the 1970s and continues to fluctuate. The population consists of three distinct stocks: southwest (SW), southcentral (SC), and southeast (SE). While the SC and SE stocks are slowly increasing, the SW stock continues to decline for indeterminant reasons. One potential contributor may be anthropogenic contaminants. Trace elements are naturally and anthropogenically sourced, potentially arising anywhere from volcanic activity to mining remnants, both prevalent in Alaska. These trace elements are known to have potential toxic effects in mammals, but toxic concentrations are unknown in sea otters. This study utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to evaluate concentrations of 16 essential and nonessential elements including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum...

Geochemistry of gold from Ontario gold deposits

ID: 3496
Year: 2023
Products: Elemental Scientific Lasers
Authors: Melo-Gomez, JD;
Application: geochemistry;
Gold is one of the most crucial metals in human history, and still, few investigations have directly studied gold composition to understand gold systems. Ontario (Canada) provides a natural example of gold systems because of the abundance and distribution of world class gold deposits. The present study constrains the geochemical signature of free gold using SEM-EDS, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS to characterize 242 samples from 71 gold deposits and occurrences. Generally, Ag, Cu, and Hg occur over 100 ppm, with Sb, Pd, Cd, and Bi typically as trace elements between 0.001 and 100 ppm. The geochemical signature of gold varies at the craton scale but is consistent at the camp scale. These spatially distinct trace element signatures are independent of local host rock and deposit types, which have implications regarding the controls on ore-forming mechanisms and reflect district-scale variations in the primary and secondary composition of gold. This elemental signature has important practical applicat...

Examining Oxidized Mn and Fe as Adsorbents of Hg and Pb in Seawater: An Incubation Experiment

ID: 3495
Year: 2023
Products: ICP-MS
Authors: Gammelsæter, E;
Application: Species;seawater;
Kunnskap om hvordan Hg og Pb sirkulerer i det marine miljøet er viktig fordi de er toksiske for marint liv. Forskning tyder på at redokssensitive elementer som Mn og Fe tar en viktig del i disse syklusene. Mn og Fe danner kolloider og partikler i de øvre vannmassene som kan adsorbere Hg og Pb. Målet med denne studien var å undersøke adsorpsjon av Hg og Pb av Fe og Mn som har blitt oksidert in situ (in situ Fe, Mn eller MnFe) for å forstå de naturlige prosessene i sjøvann. Denne studien hadde en eksperimentell tilnærming. Sjøvann ble innhentet fra 80 meter dybde i Trondheimsfjorden og tilsatt 0.005 pM Hg og 2.0 pM Pb. I eksperimentet ble tre ulike behandlinger testet: Mn, Fe og kombinasjonen av de (1:1 forhold). For hver behandling ble 10, 25, 50 og 100 nM Fe(II) og/eller Mn(II) tilsatt. Pb, Fe og Mn adsorberte signifikant på veggene i flaskene. Derfor var de fleste målinger av dPb under deteksjonsgrensen mellom 2 og 16 timer. En desopsjonstest indikerte at behandlingene me...

Geochemical Applications of Stable Rhenium and Mercury Isotopes

ID: 3494
Year: 2023
Products: Elemental Scientific® prepFAST automated inline dilution system
Authors: Sullivan, DL;
Application: isotope;geochemistry;nuclear;
Studying natural variations in the isotopic composition of oxygen-sensitive elements in ancient marine sediments is a powerful way to study the geochemical evolution of Earth’s environments in the past. My dissertation focused on two broad aspects of isotope geochemistry: 1) the development of rhenium (Re) isotopes as a paleoredox and nuclear forensics tool, and 2) the application of mercury (Hg) isotopes as a tool to trace Hg mobility in the environment and what this movement means for isotopic changes in sedimentary rocks used to study Earth’s past. Chapter 2 is the first examination of Re isotopes in sedimentary rocks that formed ~2.5 billion years ago during a period of ocean and atmospheric oxygenation prior to the Great Oxidation Event. The data show variations in Re isotope ratios coincide with evidence for changes in oceanic and atmospheric oxygenation, supporting the use of Re isotopes as a tool to track paleoredox conditions throughout Earth's history. Another application...

Particulate Pb emission factors from wildland fires in the United States

ID: 3493
Year: 2023
Products: min−1 PFA micro-nebulizer
Authors: Holder, A;Rao, V;Kovalcik, K;Virtaranta, L;
Application: Environmental;EPA;isotope;agricultural;detection limits;
Wildland fires, which includes both wild and prescribed fires, and agricultural fires in sum are one of the largest sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States (US). Although wildland fire PM2.5 emissions are primarily composed of carbonaceous material, many other elements including trace metals are emitted at very low levels. Lead (Pb) is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria pollutant that is ubiquitous in the environment at very low concentrations including in biomass that can burn and emit Pb into the atmosphere. Although fires may emit Pb at very low concentrations, they can be a source of sizeable Pb emissions to the atmosphere because of the large quantity of PM2.5 emitted from fires. In this work, we measure Pb concentrations in unburned biomass, ash/residues, and particulate matter...

3D printed bioabsorbable composite scaffolds of poly (lactic acid)-tricalcium phosphate-ceria with osteogenic property for bone regeneration

ID: 3492
Year: 2024
Products: PFA μFlow nebulizer
Authors: Harb, S;Kolanthai, E;Pugazhendhi, A;Beatrice, C;Pinto, L;Neal, C;Backes, E;Nunes, A;Selistre-de-Araújo, H;Costa, L;Coathup, M;Seal, S;Pessan, L;
Application: Cells;Tissue;
The fabrication of customized implants by additive manufacturing has allowed continued development of the personalized medicine field. Herein, a 3D-printed bioabsorbable poly (lactic acid) (PLA)- β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) (10 wt %) composite has been modified with CeO2 nanoparticles (CeNPs) (1, 5 and 10 wt %) for bone repair. The filaments were prepared by melt extrusion and used to print porous scaffolds. The nanocomposite scaffolds possessed precise structure with fine print resolution, a homogenous distribution of TCP and CeNP components, and mechanical properties appropriate for bone tissue engineering applications. Cell proliferation assays using osteoblast cultures confirmed the cytocompatibility of the composites. In addition, the presence of CeNPs enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells; thereby, increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition and bone-related gene expression. Results from this study have shown that the 3D...

Investigating the Late Chalcolithic pottery production and consumption at Valencina de la Concepción (Seville, SW-Spain): An archaeometric analysis using petrographic and LA-ICP-MS techniques

ID: 3491
Year: 2024
Products: ESI NWR193 ArF excimer laser ablation (LA) system
Authors: Kibaroğlu, M;Schuhmacher, T;Mederos, A;Falkenstein, F;Manuel Vargas, J;Mertz-Kraus, R;Hacıosmanoğlu, S;
Application: Laser;
This paper discusses the results of an archaeometric analysis carried out on undecorated Late Chalcolithic ceramics from Valencina de la Concepción, which is one of the largest and most important Chalcolithic settlements in the southern Iberian Peninsula. The purpose of the study is to contribute to the debate on the socio-economic organization and exchange networks of the site during the third millennium BCE in the Lower Guadalquivir Basin. Petrographic and chemical analysis by LA-ICP-MS of compressed ultrafine powder pellets were used to analyze selected ceramic samples (n = 42) from Valencina and reference clay samples (n = 62) from different locations in the Aljarafe plateau. This study sheds light on possible raw material sources, the choice strategy of raw materials, and certain aspects of production technologies employed for Late Chalcolithic ceramics found at Valencina de la Concepción. The archaeometric analysis revealed that a significant portion of the ceramics, especially...

Formation of the eclogites of the Atbashi complex, Kyrgyzstan, in a subduction zone mélange diapir

ID: 3490
Year: 2023
Products: ESI New Wave NWR 193UC (TwoVol2) laser ablation system
Authors: Sang, M;Tan, Z;Xiao, W;Mao, Q;Wang, H;Li, R;Qiao, Q;
Application: Laser;
Much debate exists concerning mechanisms of crustal material transfer from subducting slab to overlying mantle. Formation of mélange rocks by physical mixing of slab components within subduction plate interface is predicted to transfer their compositional signal to source of arc magmas by ascending as diapirs from slab-top. Despite being supported conceptually and through modeling, existence of these diapirs in global subduction architecture remains inconclusive. Here we use petrological observations, thermometry and thermodynamic modeling, combined with geochemical constraints and compilation of massive existing data, to investigate eclogites from a deeply buried mélange “package” in Kyrgyz Tianshan, southern Altaids. We find that various slab components physically mixed to form eclogitic mélange rocks at threshold depth of the subarc (i.e., ≥85 km). Index mineralogical and Pressure-Temperature records indicate a thermal history with substantial heating after peak burial to...

高レベル放射性廃棄物中の Zr-93 迅速分析に向けた LA-ICP-MS による固体試料中 Zr 同位体測定法の開発

ID: 3489
Year: 2023
Products: LA 装置
Authors: 森井志織, ;蓬田匠, ;浅井志保, ;大内和希, ;岡壽崇, ;
Application: ~
高レベル放射性廃棄物(HLW)等の処分時の安全評価対象核種のひとつであるZr-93のICP-MS定量分析をより迅速化する手法として,Zrを選択的に固相抽出した試料をそのままレーザーアブレーション(LA)してICP-MSで定量分析する技術開発を行った.DGAレジンにZrのみを吸着させる新規Zr固体試料調製法により,試料調製時間を従来よりも大幅に短縮した.Zr固体試料をLA-ICP-MS測定するための最適なレーザー照射条件を検討した.開発した手法をHLW模擬試料中のZr同位体定量に適用した結果,IDMSにより求めた同位体定量値は試料の元素濃度から求めた含有量と不確かさの範囲で一致したため,実際の放射性廃棄物試料中のZr-93についても同様の手順で定量できる見込みを得た....

Trace Metal Levels of Groundwater, Surface Water and Sediments in Kinsevere Industrial Zone and Its Surroundings, Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo

ID: 3488
Year: 2023
Products: ESI (Elemental Scientific Incorporation) Fast autosampler
Authors: Bamba Bukengu Muhaya, ;Benjamin Busomoke Badarhi, ;
Application: ~
Arsenic, barium, bismuth, cadmium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, strontium, thallium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc concentrations were investigated in forty-two groundwater samples, twenty-four surface water and six surface sediment samples in Kinsevere industrial zone and its surroundings in February and march 2017, January, February and March 2018 to evaluate the potential human health risk. Chemical analyses were carried out by using ICP-SF-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry, Thermo Scientific Element II). The trace metals were detected at various concentrations in all the analyzed samples. Pb, Mn and Fe concentrations exceeded the European Union acceptable maximum limits for water intended for human consumption in 4.76%, 28.57% and 61.90% of the groundwater samples, respectively and in 0%, 50% and 100% of the surface water samples, respectively. As, Cr, Cu and Ni concentrations exceeded the recommend...

Stability of the Macrocyclic Gd-DOTA Contrast Agent (DOTAREM) under Different Estuarine Environmental Conditions

ID: 3487
Year: 2023
Products: Elemental Scientific Instruments
Authors: Guerreiro, A;Brito, P;
Application: Environmental;
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) are complexes, highly stable in vivo, used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), administered in patients and then eliminated via renal, passing through wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) before being discarded in the receiving medium, without apparent removal. In this study, it was studied if different exposure periods to several environmental parameters (solar radiation, different salinities, temperatures and pH) will influence the stability of these complexes, namely, the Gd-DOTA. Gd-DOTA solutions were processed in a seaFAST-pico saline matrix pre-concentration and elimination system and Gd concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that the complex remained stable in fresh, brackish and saline water environments, even when exposed to extreme temperatures (40ºC) or slightly acidic to basic conditions (6-10), for an exposure period of 96h. A small increase in the free Gd concentration was observed after 18 days when exposed to pH...

Isotopic evidence for nickel limitation of biological productivity in the ocean

ID: 3486
Year: 2023
Products: PFA nebulizer
Authors: Wang, T;Zhang, Q;Hsieh, T;Henderson, G;Rickaby, R;
Application: Biological;Total;Species;seawater;isotope;
Nickel (Ni) is an essential element for many important enzyme systems1,2. Two puzzling aspects of Ni biogeochemical cycling in the modern ocean have emerged. First, unlike a number of bio-essential elements, Ni is never fully depleted in the surface ocean3-13. Second, a heavy Ni isotopic composition in the surface ocean, indicative of removal of light isotopes likely by productivity, is not observed globally6-13. Active debate persists regarding the isotopic fractionation of Ni associated with biological uptake and the bioavailability of Ni in the ocean7,9,11-13. Here we show that, in contrast to biological isotopic fractionation for most other elements, three cosmopolitan phytoplankton species preferentially take up isotopically heavy Ni from the culture media, with species-dependent magnitudes of fractionation, under varying Ni availability. This fractionation towards heavy Ni isotopes can be explained, in our experiments, by the characteristic strong Ni-binding of cellular metal acq...

Phytochemicals Characterization of Lianqiao (Forsythia suspensa) extract and evaluation of its antivirus and antioxidant activities

ID: 3485
Year: 2023
Products: MicroMill
Authors: Gao, B;Zhu, H;Liu, Z;Wang, T;He, X;Sun, J;Li, Y;Wu, X;Pehrsson, P;Zhang, Y;Yao, Y;Yu, L;
Application: Total;
Forsythia suspensa (Lianqiao) has long been touted for its anti-viral effects in folklore. Although promising, limited research were conducted to evaluate its potential in defending the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This study evaluated the fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Lianqiao), an important economic crop, for the chemical components of its water and ethanol extracts, along with their inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), inhibitions of ACE2 activity, and capacities to scavenge the selected free radicals. A total of 42 compounds were tentatively identified in the extracts by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Both water and ethanol extracts of Lianqiao showed great inhibition of ACE2 activity and the binding affinity between SARS CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2. Furthermore, the water extract had greater scavenging capacities against HO●, DPPH● and ABTS●+ than the ethanol extract. Findings of this research...

Assessing the utility of strontium isotopes in fossil dental calculus

ID: 3484
Year: 2023
Products: ESI Apex-ST PFA MicroFlow nebulizer 193 nm ArF excimer laser
Authors: Dosseto, A;Dux, F;Eisenhofer, R;Weyrich, L;
Application: Laser;
Strontium (Sr) isotopes measured in fossil remains have been a useful tool to assess the geographical origin and even migrations of humans and other animals. In particular, dental enamel generally provides as the ideal material, as it is dense and less prone to diagenetic replacement of Sr post-burial. However, fossil teeth can often be precious artefacts and difficult to access for destructive analysis. Here, we assess whether measuring Sr isotopes in fossil dental calculus could be used at least as a rangefinder to determine the geographical origin of an individual. We measured trace element concentrations in modern calculus (from a local dental practice), and trace element concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in human fossil calculus, dentine and enamel from specimens collected in York, UK. Comparing trace element concentrations between modern and fossil calculus show that metals present in fossil calculus are mostly acquired post-burial, including Sr. The relationship between 87Sr/8...

Toxicological inhalation studies in rats to substantiate grouping of zinc oxide nanoforms

ID: 3483
Year: 2023
Products: Elemental Scientific Lasers
Authors: Thoma, T;Ma-Hock, L;Schneider, S;Honarvar, N;Treumann, S;Groeters, S;Strauss, V;Marxfeld, H;Seiffert, S;Wohlleben, W;Dammann, M;Wiench, K;Lambaert, N;Spirlet, C;Vasquez, M;Dewhurst, N;Landsiedel, R;
Application: Tissue;
Background Different zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoforms were identified as a probable set of similar nanoforms for a common hazard assessment. To justify this grouping, toxicological studies were performed: A 90-day inhalation study (OECD test guideline no. (TG) 413) combined with a reproduction/developmental (neuro)toxicity screening test (TG 421/424/426) was performed in rats with coated and uncoated ZnO nanoforms in comparison with microscale ZnO particles and soluble zinc sulfate. In addition, genotoxicity in the nasal cavity, lungs, liver, and bone marrow was examined via comet assay (TG 489) after 14-day inhalation exposure. Results ZnO nanoparticles caused local toxicity in the respiratory tract. Systemic effects that were not related to the local irritation were not observed. There was no indication of impaired fertility, developmental toxicity, or developmental neurotoxicity. No indication for genotoxicity of any of the test substances was observed. Local effects were similar across t...

Selenium and Mercury Quantitative Imaging in Entire Rainbow Trout Fry by La-Icp Ms Using Polymer Films and Biological Matrices as Standards

ID: 3482
Year: 2023
Products: NWR 213
Authors: Labeyrie, L;Vallverdu, G;Michau, D;Fontagné-Dicharry, S;mounicou, s;
Application: Biological;
The quantitative imaging of trace elements in biological samples can bring information on their assimilation pathways and help understanding their toxicity or essentiality. This study presents the development of two quantitative LA-ICP MS methodologies and their comparison for Se, Hg, Cu, Zn and Mo imaging in rainbow trout. The first method is based on spiked polymer films (dextran) allowing internal standardization with Ge and Te. The second method relies on the matrix-matched standards (MMS) methodology, with homogenized and spiked trout muscle and calf liver. For Se, Cu, Zn and Mo, linear regressions with correlation coefficient above 0.994 were obtained by LA-ICP MS analysis for both methods. For Hg, only MMS calibration provided linear regression as polymer films exhibited Hg unstable signals during LA-ICP MS analysis. Element concentrations spiked in muscle and liver MMS were also confirmed by ICP MS and used to validate the polymer films method as values obtained for Se, Hg, Mo ...

Benthic Respiration and Heavy Metal Benthic Fluxes in Artificial Shihwa Lake: Approaching in Situ Measurement

ID: 3481
Year: 2023
Products: seaFAST
Authors: Cho, Y;Baek, J;An, S;Yoo, H;Beak, H;Choi, J;Kim, T;Kim, K;Lee, J;Kim, S;
Application: Total;seawater;isotope;
This study assessed the impact of intensive human activities on organic matter (OM) and heavy metal cycles in Shihwa Lake, South Korea. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD), benthic nutrient flux (BNF), and benthic heavy metal flux were estimated using in situ benthic chambers. The combined analysis of sediment trap and SOD showed that the vertical supply of OM was a major controlling factor for benthic respiration. The BNF accounted for 35-144% and 32-184% of the N and P required, respectively, for primary production (PP) in the water column. The higher SOD may have also accelerated the release of Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni from the sediment. Benthic fluxes of Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were highest near the industrial complex, with ranges of 1.3 ± 0.9, 6.4 ± 4.9, 0.2 ± 0.1, 0.5 ± 0.4, 7.7 ± 1.4, and 452 ± 133 μmol m−2 d−1, respectively. Mn, Fe, Co, As, Pb, Ni, and Cu contributed more than 10% of the sediment to the current standing stock at Shihwa Lake....

Trophodynamics of Arsenic, Mercury, and Selenium in the Food Webs of the Southeastern Gulf of California

ID: 3480
Year: 2023
Products: seaFast
Authors: Soto-Jiménez, M;Valladolid Garnica, D;Torres-Rojas, Y;Jara Marini, M;Muro-Torres, V;
Application: Species;Food;seawater;isotope;
Coastal marine environments are subject to anthropogenic disturbances, increasing trace element concentrations in the ocean. We aimed to assess the trophodynamics of arsenic, mercury, and selenium in the southeastern Gulf of California food web from benthic, benthopelagic, and pelagic communities. We employ stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope analysis, Bayesian mixing models, and trace element concentration in seawater, surface sediment, and biota. The bioconcentration factor of As, Hg, and Se from seawater was elevated in marine organisms (BAF>1000). Bioaccumulation factor from sediment was also found to exceed unity (BSAF>1) for Hg and Se. We quantified the biomagnification efficiency across different trophic levels and feeding strategies, the trophic magnification (TMF) and biomagnification factors (BMF). Our results indicate the following TMF order: TMFAs=4.07 > TMFHg=1.90 > TMFSe=1.77. Furthermore, the pelagic community exhibits notably higher TMF values for Se (TMF...

Examining Differences in the Uptake of Corrosive Gases in Polymer Films and its Dependence on Temperature and Relative Humidity Using a Novel Procedure Combining Sample Weathering and La-Icp-Ms Analysis

ID: 3479
Year: 2023
Products: imageGEO193LIBS
Authors: Willner, J;Brunnbauer, L;Varain, L;Knaack, P;Nelhiebel, M;Larisegger, S;Fafilek, G;Limbeck, A;
Application: Environmental;Laser;
In polymer coating applications for technological products exposed to harsh environmental operating conditions, it is essential to provide and extend the protection capability of the coating material against corrosive gases, such as hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide. Therefore, applied materials are subject to ongoing developments to improve their properties. Such developments aiming to establish improved polymer materials can only be performed accompanied by suitable testing procedures and analysis methods, for which a versatile approach is proposed in the presented work.We developed a testing approach, combining a mixed flowing gas setup (MFG) that allows flexibly adjustable exposure conditions for weathering experiments, and laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for subsequent sample analysis, allowing quantitative and spatially resolved determination of the sulfur uptake derived from H2S or SO2 weathering with high sensitivity. The testing pro...

Väyrysen ja Kääriäisen korkean profiilin aika 1981‒1991. Keskustan historia 6

ID: 3478
Year: 2023
Products: Product Unavailable
Authors: Katajisto, K;
Application: ~
The era (1981‒1991) of the high-profile politics of Väyrynen and Kääriäinen: The Centre Party of Finland 6 The Centre Party of Finland was represented in almost all cabinets for decades, and it often held the post of prime minister during the reign of President Urho Kekkonen. When Kekkonen’s deteriorating health forced him to resign in 1981, the Centre Party, formerly the Agrarian Union, was in front of the crisis. The party was deeply divided along the lines of who would be the best candidate to succeed Kekkonen. The schism had prevailed for years, and contemporaries suspected the party would split up or at least lose its dominant position in Finnish politics. Besides, the numbers of core supporters making up the party, agrarians, were constantly diminishing. In addition, the Finnish party system was in a state of flux. The Finnish People’s Democratic League was in a deep downward spiral, while the Conservative Party’s support was ascendant. The power struggle between the ...
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